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Sugimoto, M. and Yasuda, T.
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Wiggin, G. R., Fawcett, J. P. and Pawson, T.
Figure 1.

βAR stimulation induces lymphopenia in a cell-intrinsic manner. (A and B) Numbers of B cells (CD19, top) and CD4 T cells (CD4, bottom) in blood (A) and lymph (B) that were collected from WT mice 2 h after i.v. injection with the indicated doses of clenbuterol or salbutamol. Data are pooled from seven experiments and are shown as mean ± SEM for at least three mice. (C and D) Numbers of B cells (top) and CD4 T cells (bottom) in blood (C) and lymph (D) at the indicated times after i.v. injection of saline, clenbuterol (0.4 mg/kg), or salbutamol (12 mg/kg). Data are pooled from 11 experiments and are shown as mean ± SEM for at least five mice. (E) Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showing the abundance of mRNA transcripts (encoding βAR) relative to (encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) for the indicated lymphocyte populations isolated from the mouse spleen. Data are representative of three experiments and shown as mean + SD of triplicates. (F and G) B cell numbers in blood (F) and lymph (G) from WT ( or littermates) or mice that received i.v. injection of saline or clenbuterol (0.4 mg/kg). Data are pooled from five experiments. (H and I) BM chimeras generated using WT or (−/−) mice as donors and recipients received i.v. injection of saline or clenbuterol (0.4 mg/kg), and 2 h later, the fractions of B cells in the blood (H) and lymph (I) were determined as percentages relative to those in saline-treated mice. Data are pooled from six experiments and the dashed lines show the levels of saline-treated control as 100%. Each symbol represents an individual mouse and bars indicate means (F–I). Sal, Saline; Clen, clenbuterol; Salb, salbutamol. *, P < 0.05; **, P < 0.01; ****, P < 0.0001; ns, not significant (one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni’s post-test).

The effect of clenbuterol on the numbers of circulating B and T cells was abrogated in β 2 AR-deficient mice ( Fig. 1, F and G ; and not depicted), confirming that clenbuterol specifically acts on β 2 ARs in this experimental setting. To determine whether the action of the β 2 AR agonist was mediated by β 2 ARs expressed on the radiosensitive hematopoietic compartment or radioresistant nonhematopoietic compartment, we administered clenbuterol to BM chimeras generated using β 2 AR-deficient mice as donors or recipients. Reduction of B cell numbers in blood and lymph was significantly blunted, but not completely abrogated, in WT mice reconstituted with β 2 AR-deficient BM cells ( Fig. 1, H and I ). In contrast, B cell numbers in β 2 AR-deficient mice receiving WT BM cells were reduced to the same extent as WT recipients ( Fig. 1, H and I ). The same was true of T cells in the BM chimeras (unpublished data). These observations suggest that lymphopenia induced by treatment with the β 2 AR agonist largely depends on β 2 ARs expressed on hematopoietic cells although the involvement of nonhematopoietic β 2 ARs cannot be excluded.

Although this works, it isn’t very flexible. By default, your background image will repeat across both the X and Y axis. Depending on the size of your image, that can result in unexpected and unwanted behavior. You also can’t position or resize the background image, which is often useful—especially on today’s mobile devices.

An additional attribute that you should include when using this approach is the bgcolor attribute, which provides a fallback color for when a background image can’t be displayed or doesn’t fill up the available space. This is necessary for two major reasons:

The bgcolor attribute is also deprecated, but still works in most browsers and email clients. However, there’s a better way to use background images in your HTML emails…

A more robust and flexible method is using the CSS background-image property inline on an element like a div or td .

The background-image property again takes a URL, which is how you point to your background image. While that code will pull in the your image, using it by itself results in the same problems as the background attribute, namely that it repeats and doesn’t allow for resizing or positioning.

If you want to prevent the background image from repeating, you can add in the background-repeat property:

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, but the most common one is no-repeat , which will stop the image from repeating on both the X and Y axis.

If you want your image positioned somewhere else besides the default of top left, you can use the background-position property with a few different values :

One of the most useful background properties, though, is the background-size property. It allows you to state how the background image should be sized to cover the available space in which the image is displayed. This is especially useful on mobile, where the amount of space is often limited. Instead of letting the device default to shrinking down your background image, you could use a value like cover or contain to more gracefully display the background image.

Finally, the last significant background property is the background-color property, which determines a fallback color for when the background image isn’t displayed or doesn’t fill up the entire containing element.

That can be a lot to remember when building an email, so it’s useful to save your background image for reuse later on. Or, if you want, you can rely on the background CSS property, which is a shorthand for all of those properties above. Using the background property, the above could be condensed into the following:

That’s a lot cleaner but it’s still a bit messy and hard to navigate within the HTML of your email. Let’s see how separating the styles from the HTML can help clean things up.

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